The present study deals with the effect of Ultrasonic Treatment (UT) on the synthesis, characterization, and mechanical properties of Al-4.4 wt% Cu alloy reinforced with 2 vol % of Graphite (Grp) particles. Microstructural analysis of composite confirms that the UT enhances the wettability, de-agglomeration, and uniform distribution of Grp particles in the matrix. The micron-sized Grp has been flaked off to submicron particles with increase in aspect ratio from ∼4.7 to ∼6.5 due to ultrasonic cavitation effect. In comparison with monolithic Al-4.4 wt % Cu alloy an overall grain size reduction of 74% has been observed in composite with UT. Grp particles’ reinforcement together with grain refinement has improved the mechanical properties viz. hardness, compressive strength and tensile strength of the synthesized composite with UT. The strengthening mechanisms of the Grp particles in the synthesized composites have been analyzed and discussed. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.