Unraveling the large number of various signals in the brain under the influence of physical and chemical cues that govern the formation of individual neurons, axons, dendrites, and their functional synapses during the development of neural network is a challenging task. To understand this task, microfluidic devices equipped with microchannels for reconstitution of cell/tissue-culture environments have been studied. Microfluidic devices are emerging as powerful tools in neurobiology, since they are capable of controlling and manipulating the microenvironment of the brain in a precise manner. They can enhance the physiological relevance of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture by allowing spatial control over fluids in micrometer-sized channels. Recent technological advancement in designing microfluidic platforms for studying neural communication, disease progression, and detection of neurotransmitters enhance our fundamental knowledge and understanding. However, more such advanced and innovative interventions are required. This Viewpoint focuses on highlighting a few of them with future scope of further advancement in this field. © 2019 American Chemical Society.