The organization of neocortex in the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) was explored with multiunit microelectrode recordings from middle layers of cortex. Microelectrode maps were subsequently related to the chemoarchitecture of flattened cortical preparations, sectioned parallel to the cortical surface and processed for either cytochrome oxidase (CO) or NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd) histochemistry. The recordings revealed the presence of at least two systematic representations of the contralateral body surface located in a continuous strip of cortex running from the rhinal sulcus to the medial wall. The primary somatosensory area (S1) was located medially while secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) formed a laterally located mirror image of S1. Auditory cortex was located in lateral cortex at the caudal border of S2, and some electrode penetrations in this area responded to both auditory and somatosensory stimulation. Auditory cortex was outlined by a dark oval visible in flattened brain sections. A large primary visual cortex (V1) was located at the caudal pole of cortex, and also consistently corresponded to a large chemoarchitecturally visible oval. Cortex just rostral and lateral to V1 responded to visual stimulation, while bimodal auditory/visual responses were obtained in an area between V1 and somatosensory cortex. The results are compared with brain organization in other marsupials and with placentals and the evolution of cortical areas in mammals is discussed.