The effect of grain size and composition on the fracture toughness of Ti-Al-Nb alloys in β solution-treated condition was investigated. The fracture toughness of the alloys was found to increase with an increase in grain size initially, reach a maximum and subsequently decrease with further increase in grain size. This trend was attributed primarily to the effect of grain size on the enhancement of fracture toughness due to stress-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT) at the crack tip, which in turn can be related to the effect of grain size on trigger stress for SIMT. Alloys containing higher Al and Nb showed a higher toughness for the same grain size, which was also explained in terms of effect of composition on the trigger stress. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.