Recent advances in the field of nanotechnology have led to a considerable progress in the domain of engineered molecular interactions which has resulted in the emergence of nano-biodevices. Various methods to modify surfaces suitably for realizing bioactive surfaces have emerged due to combined research in nanotechnology and molecular biology areas. This article presents a summary of the several technological achievements in the area of nano-biodevices and provides an overview of the various surface modification strategies carried out. The different strategies related to covalent and non-covalent immobilization of biomolecules have also been addressed to understand the efficacy of a substrate surface used in nano-biodevices. © 2016 Scrivener Publishing LLC.