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Stabilization of non-native polymorphs for electrocatalysis and energy storage systems
S. Saha, , R.G.S. Pala
Published in John Wiley and Sons Ltd
Volume: 10
Issue: 2
Evolution in material centric devices like batteries and electrocatalytic reactors have predominantly been made possible via the exploitation of the thermodynamic ground state of pristine or defective bulk crystal, referred to as the “Native polymorph” (NP) here. A significant increase in the material search space is possible by utilizing “Non-Native polymorphs (NNP),” which are materials that have different translational symmetry with respect to NP. As the NNP have a distinct coordination structure from that of the NP, critical material properties can be anticipated to be different, making NNP a potential substitute material for the aforementioned applications, which are the focus of this review. To obtain a structure–function relationship, systematic approaches to the synthesis of NNP has been demonstrated. Following certain generalities behind NNP, we classify synthesis techniques into few categories with the hope of rationalizing the underlying mechanism of these synthesis and stabilization strategies. We discuss the utility of NNPs in the context of electrochemical water electrocatalytic reactions. Typically, the NNPs have more open volume space enabling lower lithium-ion diffusion barrier, higher lithium-ion binding energies, thereby making NNP efficient in the context of energy storage material. However, NNP have lesser stability than the NP and methods to calibrate and improve the stability of NNP are important. Overall, the discussion of polymorphic materials by demarcating them as NP and NNP provides a systematic approach towards modulating material properties as a trade-off between thermodynamics and kinetics of physicochemical processes. Finally, the challenges and perspectives in this emerging field are discussed. This article is categorized under: Fuel Cells and Hydrogen > Science and Materials Energy Research & Innovation > Science and Materials Energy and Development > Science and Materials. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC
About the journal
JournalData powered by TypesetWiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment
PublisherData powered by TypesetJohn Wiley and Sons Ltd