In present research article, microstructure evolution in P91 steel and their weldments are reviewed in as-virgin and heat treatment and creep exposure condition. The thermal stability of P91 steel is derived from solid solution strengthening, sub-grain hardening and precipitation hardening. The initial microstructure plays an important role in deciding the mechanical properties of P91 steel and their weldment in long-term ageing and creep exposure condition. Effects of various alloying elements present in P91 steel and their related phase have also been discussed in details. The role of grain coarsening, Cr/Fe ratio, lath widening and dislocation density on creep rupture life of base metal and weldments are discussed. The combined effects of lath martensitic microstructure, residual stress and diffusible hydrogen content on performance of P91 steel material are also discussed. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.