The paper elaborates the silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays fabrication using standard CMOS compatible technologies (top-down) with each array consisting of 100 wires, which are individually electrically measurable for their conductance and facilitating statistical analysis. To facilitate real-time analysis, the arrays are integrated with micro-fluidics for the delivery of various chemicals for surface modification, buffer solutions, bio-molecules/analytes, etc. The silicon nanowires are also presented as nano-temperature sensors in two configurations, i.e. as resistance temperature detector (RTD) and diode temperature detector (DTD) types. RTD type sensors have shown temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) values ∼7500 ppm/K which are enhanced beyond 10,000 ppm/K by the application of back-bias. DTD type sensors using nanowires have recorded more than one order variation in reverse-bias current, in the temperature range of 293-373 K. Both the types of nano-temperature sensors are highly sensitive and can be integrated with other bio-chemical sensors in lab-on-chip devices. Nanowire array fabrication details in particular as nano-temperature sensor are elaborated here along with their characterization. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.