Desalination systems are mostly based on membrane (RO) and thermal (MSF and MED) processes. High-pressure operation and high level of corrosion are the major aspects of concern in a Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) Plant. Selection of the appropriate material for construction and the following of the proper design, fabrication and testing codes, and safe operational procedures ensure the safety of the plant. Proper selection of feed seawater source, provision of standby equipment, proper instrumentation and controls, and periodical maintenance improve the reliability. When the desalination plant is integrated into a nuclear power plant, safety measures have to be more stringent, in order to achieve smooth operation and public acceptance. In this paper, the safety and reliability aspects of SWRO desalination plants are discussed in detail, including the case study of an SWRO plant integrated with a nuclear desalination system. Copyright © 2007 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.