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Real-time measurement and source apportionment of elements in Delhi's atmosphere
P. Rai, M. Furger, I. El Haddad, V. Kumar, L. Wang, K. Dixit, , J.-E. Petit, D. Ganguly, N. RastogiShow More
Published in Elsevier B.V.
PMID: 33167294
Volume: 742
Delhi, the capital of India, suffers from heavy local emissions as well as regional transport of air pollutants, resulting in severe aerosol loadings. To determine the sources of these pollutants, we have quantified the mass concentrations of 26 elements in airborne particles, measured by an online X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with time resolution between 30 min and 1 h. Measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter <10 μm and < 2.5 μm) were conducted during two consecutive winters (2018 and 2019) in Delhi. On average, 26 elements from Al to Pb made up ~25% and ~19% of the total PM10 mass (271 μg m−3 and 300 μg m−3) in 2018 and 2019, respectively. Nine different aerosol sources were identified during both winters using positive matrix factorization (PMF), including dust, non-exhaust, an S-rich factor, two solid fuel combustion (SFC) factors and four industrial/combustion factors related to plume events (Cr-Ni-Mn, Cu-Cd-Pb, Pb-Sn-Se and Cl-Br-Se). All factors were resolved in both size ranges (but varying relative concentrations), comprising the following contributions to the elemental PM10 mass (in % average for 2018 and 2019): Cl-Br-Se (41.5%, 36.9%), dust (27.6%, 28.7%), non-exhaust (16.2%, 13.7%), S-rich (6.9%, 9.2%), SFC1 + SFC2 (4%, 7%), Pb-Sn-Se (2.3%, 1.66%), Cu-Cd-Pb (0.67%, 2.2%) and Cr-Ni-Mn (0.57%, 0.47%). Most of these sources had the highest relative contributions during late night (22:00 local time (LT)) and early morning hours (between 03:00 to 08:00 LT), which is consistent with enhanced emissions into a shallow boundary layer. Modelling of airmass source geography revealed that the Pb-Sn-Se, Cl-Br-Se and SFC2 factors prevailed for northwest winds (Pakistan, Punjab, Haryana and Delhi), while the Cu-Cd-Pb and S-rich factors originated from east (Nepal and Uttar Pradesh) and the Cr-Ni-Mn factor from northeast (Uttar Pradesh). In contrast, SFC1, dust and non-exhaust were not associated with any specific wind direction. © 2020 The Authors
About the journal
JournalData powered by TypesetScience of the Total Environment
PublisherData powered by TypesetElsevier B.V.
Open AccessNo