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Quantum Resource Estimates of Grover’s Key Search on ARIA
Published in Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Volume: 12586 LNCS
Pages: 238 - 258
Grover’s algorithm provides a quantum attack against block ciphers by searching for a k-bit key using O(2k) calls to the cipher, when given a small number of plaintext-ciphertext pairs. Recent works by Grassl et al. in PQCrypto’16 and Almazrooie et al. in QIP’18 have estimated the cost of this attack against AES by analyzing the quantum circuits of the cipher. We present a quantum reversible circuit of ARIA, a Korean standardized block cipher that is widely deployed in government-to-public services. Firstly, we design quantum circuits for the main components of ARIA, and then combine them to construct the complete circuit of ARIA. We implement Grover’s algorithm-based exhaustive key-search attack on ARIA. For all three variants of ARIA-{128, 192, 256}, we establish precise bounds for the number of qubits and the number of Clifford + T gates that are required to implement Grover’s algorithm. We also estimate the G-cost as the total number of gates, and DW-cost as the product of circuit depth and width. To find the circuit depth of various circuits such as squaring, multiplier, and permutation layer, we implement them in an open-source quantum computing platform QISKIT developed by IBM. © 2020, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.