Protein nanocomposites have attracted considerable research interest in recent times owing to the combined advantageous properties of nanotechnology and proteins. Lysozyme holds enormous potential in various biomedical applications as it possesses antibacterial properties, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and analgesic properties. Considering its multifunctional aspects, structural stability and ease of production and modification, special focus has been attributed to this protein. Nanocomposites have either been fabricated completely from lysozyme or have been conjugated to lysozyme considering its versatile biotechnological applications. The current review describes the recent advances of protein nanocomposites using lysozyme as a prime example. Along with the principles, techniques, and applications involved in protein based nanocomposites, this review also provides a comprehensive account of interactions between lysozyme and different nanoparticles. Numerous studies that have integrated the utilization of lysozyme and nanotechnology for a variety of applications have also been discussed at length. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.