Advancement and affordability is leading to the popularity of plastic surgery procedures. Facial plastic surgery can be reconstructive to correct facial feature anomalies or cosmetic to improve the appearance. Both corrective as well as cosmetic surgeries alter the original facial information to a large extent thereby posing a great challenge for face recognition algorithms. The contribution of this research is 1) preparing a face database of 900 individuals for plastic surgery, and 2) providing an analytical and experimental underpinning of the effect of plastic surgery on face recognition algorithms. The results on the plastic surgery database suggest that it is an arduous research challenge and the current state-of-art face recognition algorithms are unable to provide acceptable levels of identification performance. Therefore, it is imperative to initiate a research effort so that future face recognition systems will be able to address this important problem. © 2010 IEEE.