Microglia are resident innate immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia play a critical role during development, in maintaining homeostasis, and during infection or injury. Several independent research groups have highlighted the central role that microglia play in autoimmune diseases, autoinflammatory syndromes and cancers. The activation of microglia in some neurological diseases may directly participate in pathogenic processes. Primary microglia are a powerful tool to understand the immune responses in the brain, cell-cell interactions and dysregulated microglia phenotypes in disease. Primary microglia mimic in vivo microglial properties better than immortalized microglial cell lines. Human adult microglia exhibit distinct properties as compared to human fetal and rodent microglia. This protocol provides an efficient method for isolation of primary microglia from adult human brain. Studying these microglia can provide critical insights into cell-cell interactions between microglia and other resident cellular populations in the CNS including, oligodendrocytes, neurons and astrocytes. Additionally, microglia from different human brains may be cultured for characterization of unique immune responses for personalized medicine and a myriad of therapeutic applications. © 2020 JoVE Journal of Visualized Experiments.