Here we briefly present the recent developments of next generation nanocomposite ultrafiltration membranes with enhanced performances mostly using organic polymer and inorganic nanoparticles. Commonly used nanocomposite ultrafiltration membranes in asymmetric structures are prepared using common organic polymers like polysulfone, polyvinylidene fluoride, cellulose acetate, polyamide, polyacrylonitrile etc as base matrix with inorganic metal and metal oxide nanoparticles like silver, iron, silica, iron oxide, zeolite, titania etc as filler materials. In addition, carbon nanotube based nanocomposite ultrafiltration membranes are developed as a possible fouling resistant, low-energy replacement for conventional membranes. The challenges involved on scaling-up of these membranes from laboratory scale developments and future research directions on this area are also discussed. © 2014 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.