Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological cancer. Cytoreductive surgery to remove primary and intraperitoneal tumor deposits remains as the standard therapeutic approach. However, lack of an intraoperative image-guided approach to enable the visualization of all tumors can result in incomplete cytoreduction and recurrence. We engineered nano-sized particles derived from erythrocytes that encapsulate the near infrared (NIR) fluorochrome, indocyanine green, as potential imaging probes for tumor visualization during cytoreductive surgery. Herein, we present the first demonstra-tion of the use of these nanoparticles in conjunction with spatially-modulated illumination (SMI), at spatial frequencies in the range of 0–0.5 mm−1, to fluorescently image intraperitoneal ovarian tumors in mice. Results of our animal studies suggest that the nanoparticles accumulated at higher levels within tumors 24 h post-intraperitoneal injection as compared to various other organs. We demon-strate that, under the imaging specifications reported here, use of these nanoparticles in conjunction with SMI enhances the fluorescence image contrast between intraperitoneal tumors and liver, and between intraperitoneal tumors and spleen by nearly 2.1, and 3.0 times, respectively, at the spatial frequency of 0.2 mm−1 as compared to the contrast values at spatially-uniform (non-modulated) illumination. These results suggest that the combination of erythrocyte-derived NIR nanoparticles and structured illumination provides a promising approach for intraoperative fluorescence imaging of ovarian tumor nodules at enhanced contrast. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.