Impairment in the clearance of misfolded proteins by functional proteins leads to various late-onset neurodegenerative diseases. Cell applies a strict quality control mechanism against malfunctioned proteins which may generate cellular proteoxicity. Under proteotoxic insults, cells immediately adopt two major approaches to either refold the misfolded proteinaceous species or degrade the unmanageable candidates. However, the main cellular proteostasis quality control mechanism is not clear. It is therefore important to understand the events and cellular pathways, which are implicated in the clearance of recalcitrant proteins. Ubiquitin proteasome system manages intracellular protein degradation. In this process, E3 ubiquitin ligase enzyme provides specificity for recognition of client proteins. In this review, we summarize various molecular approaches governed by E3 ubiquitin ligases in the degradation of aberrant proteins. A clear understanding of E3 ubiquitin ligases can offer a well tractable therapeutic approach against neurodegenerative diseases. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.