Hypereutectic Al-30 wt.% Si alloy was subjected to friction stir processing (FSP) to modify the cast microstructure. FSP reduces the size of undesirable coarse silicon particles, eliminates porosities, and homogenizes and refines the cast microstructure. This paper demonstrates the effect of two pass overlap friction stir processing on microstructural refinement of Al-30Si alloy, which delineates significant reduction in size and aspect ratio of silicon particles from average 200 to 2 μm and 4.93 to 1.75 μm respectively. The stir zone of two pass overlap FSP exhibits relatively homogeneous Si particle distribution. Increase in frequency of silicon particles less than 1 μm was also observed in two pass FSP stir zones. Hardness in stir zones was measured to be 75 Hv after first pass and the same changed to 85 Hv respectively after second pass. Further uniform microhardness was observed in the FSP stir zone which was not the case in as-cast Al-30Si microstructure. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.