Gallium oxide, and in particular its thermodynamically stable β-Ga2O3 phase, is within the most exciting materials in research and technology nowadays due to its unique properties. The very high breakdown electric field and the figure of merit rivaled only by diamond have tremendous potential for the next generation "green"electronics enabling efficient distribution, use, and conversion of electrical energy. Ion implantation is a traditional technological method used in these fields, and its well-known advantages can contribute greatly to the rapid development of physics and technology of Ga2O3-based materials and devices. Here, the status of ion implantation in β-Ga2O3 nowadays is reviewed. Attention is mainly paid to the results of experimental study of damage under ion irradiation and the properties of Ga2O3 layers doped by ion implantation. The results of ab initio theoretical calculations of the impurities and defect parameters are briefly presented, and the physical principles of a number of analytical methods used to study implanted gallium oxide layers are highlighted. The use of ion implantation in the development of Ga2O3-based devices, such as metal oxide field-effect transistors, Schottky barrier diodes, and solar-blind UV detectors, is described together with systematical analysis of the achieved values of their characteristics. Finally, the most important challenges to be overcome in this field of science and technology are discussed. © 2021 Author(s).