Heritage represents everything of the past for which we can be proud of today. In this chapter, we introduce the readers to the different categories of heritage as defined by UNESCO. The chapter then discusses the various techniques being developed and different research efforts going on in the world to digitally preserve cultural heritage-both its tangible and intangible aspects. The UNESCO World Heritage Site of Hampi in South India, with its historical and mythological significance, deserves preservation in physical and digital space. This book is an outcome of the India Digital Heritage project supported by the Department of Science and Technology of the government of India, focussing on the digital preservation of the heritage of Hampi. It attempts to show how multidisciplinary engagement across technology and humanities can provide significant impetus to the cause of documentation, showcasing and interpretation of cultural heritage and in some situations productive explorations of historical debates using digital tools. © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017.