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Image annotation using metric learning in semantic neighbourhoods
, C.V. Jawahar
Published in
Volume: 7574 LNCS
Issue: PART 3
Pages: 836 - 849
Automatic image annotation aims at predicting a set of textual labels for an image that describe its semantics. These are usually taken from an annotation vocabulary of few hundred labels. Because of the large vocabulary, there is a high variance in the number of images corresponding to different labels ("class-imbalance"). Additionally, due to the limitations of manual annotation, a significant number of available images are not annotated with all the relevant labels ("weak-labelling"). These two issues badly affect the performance of most of the existing image annotation models. In this work, we propose 2PKNN, a two-step variant of the classical K-nearest neighbour algorithm, that addresses these two issues in the image annotation task. The first step of 2PKNN uses "image-to-label" similarities, while the second step uses "image-to-image" similarities; thus combining the benefits of both. Since the performance of nearest-neighbour based methods greatly depends on how features are compared, we also propose a metric learning framework over 2PKNN that learns weights for multiple features as well as distances together. This is done in a large margin set-up by generalizing a well-known (single-label) classification metric learning algorithm for multi-label prediction. For scalability, we implement it by alternating between stochastic sub-gradient descent and projection steps. Extensive experiments demonstrate that, though conceptually simple, 2PKNN alone performs comparable to the current state-of-the-art on three challenging image annotation datasets, and shows significant improvements after metric learning. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
About the journal
JournalLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)