Herpesviruses like Epstein-Barr virus, human herpesvirus (HHV)-6, HHV-1, VZV, and human endogenous retroviruses, have an age-old clinical association with multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is an autoimmune disease of the nervous system wherein the myelin sheath deteriorates. The most popular mode of virus mediated immune system manipulation is molecular mimicry. Numerous herpesvirus antigens are similar to myelin proteins. Other mechanisms described here include the activity of cytokines and autoantibodies produced by the autoreactive T and B cells, respectively, viral déjà vu, epitope spreading, CD46 receptor engagement, impaired remyelination etc. Overall, this review addresses the host-parasite association of viruses with MS. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.