Repairing of brain damage is a challenging task due to the limited regenerative potential of complex network of neurons interspersed with glial cells. To address this issue, a number of approaches are in progress. Here we discuss a fascinating approach in which reactive astrocytes generated during any brain injury can be transformed into functional neurons using a mixture of small molecules or "chemical cocktail". This "chemical cocktail" leads to the conversion of reactive astrocytes into neurons by targeting two very important transcription factors, NeuroD1 and NeuroG2. This chemical approach opens up a new direction in development of regenerative medicine. © 2018 American Chemical Society.