The endogenic microRNAs (miRNA) are evolutionary, conserved, and belong to a group of small noncoding RNAs with a stretch of 19–24 nucleotides. The miRNAs play an indispensable role in gene modulation at the posttranscriptional level, inclusive of stem-cell differentiation, embryogenesis, hematopoiesis, metabolism, immune responses, or infections. The miRNAs secreted from the cells and their presence in the biological fluids signifies the regulatory role of circulating miRNAs in the pathogenesis. The phenomenal expression levels of circulating miRNAs in serum or plasma during infection makes them the potential therapeutic biomarkers for the diagnosis of assorted human infectious diseases. In this article, we have accentuated the methods for the profiling of circulating miRNA as well as the importance of miRNA as biomarkers for the diagnosis of human infectious diseases. To date, numerous biomarkers have been identified for the diagnostic or prognostic purpose; for instance, miR-182, miR-486, and miR15a in sepsis; miR-320 and miR505 in inflammatory bowel disease; miR-155 and miR-1260 in influenza; miR-12, miRVP-3p, and miR-184 in arboviruses; and miR-29b and miR-125 in hepatitis infection. Nevertheless, the noninvasive diagnostic approach, with the aid of biomarkers, currently plays a decisive role in the untimely diagnosis of human infections. So, in the near future, the exploitation of circulating miRNAs as therapeutic biomarkers for the diagnosis of human infections will help us to cure the associated diseases promptly and effectively. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.