We have systematically examined the gas and particle phase emissions from seven wood combustion devices. Among total carbon mass emitted (excluding CO 2 ), CO emissions were dominant, together with nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) (10-40%). Automated devices emitted 1-3 orders of magnitude lower CH 4 (0.002-0.60 g kg -1 of wood) and NMVOCs (0.01-1 g kg -1 of wood) compared to batch-operated devices (CH 4 : 0.25-2.80 g kg -1 of wood; NMVOCs: 2.5-19 g kg -1 of wood). 60-90% of the total NMVOCs were emitted in the starting phase of batch-operated devices, except for the first load cycles. Partial-load conditions or deviations from the normal recommended operating conditions, such as use of wet wood/wheat pellets, oxygen rich or deficit conditions, significantly enhanced the emissions. NMVOCs were largely dominated by small carboxylic acids and alcohols, and furans. Despite the large variability in NMVOCs emission strengths, the relative contribution of different classes showed large similarities among different devices and combustion phases. We show that specific improper operating conditions may even for advanced technology not result in the emission reduction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) forming compounds and thus not reduce the impact of wood combustion on climate and health. © 2019 American Chemical Society.