The selective laser melting (SLM) is a popular additive manufacturing (AM) technique used for the fabrication of metal parts. In the present study, two 316L stainless steel specimens (SLM-I and SLM-II) with different microstructures were fabricated with different levels of energy density by changing the laser power and scanning speed, which are the main SLM process conditions. The deformation and fracture behavior of miniature SLM specimens under uniaxial tension were experimentally measured via optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning microscopy (FE-SEM), and an electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique. In order to analyze the deformation heterogeneities under uniaxial tension, the inverse pole figure (IPF) map, kernel average misorientation (KAM) map, Taylor factor (TF) map, grain boundaries (GBs), E3 twin boundaries (TBs), and melt pool boundaries (MPBs) developed in deformed SLM specimens were analyzed at different strain levels. The effect of microstructural factors on the deformation heterogeneities of SLM specimens was explained by the evolution of KAM, GBs, MPBs, and E3 TBs. The initial microstructures of the SLM specimens significantly influenced the generation and propagation of cracks under uniaxial tension. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.