Protein aggregation and ordered fibrillar amyloid deposition inside and outside of the central nervous system cells is the common pathologic hallmark of most aging-related neurodegenerative disorders. Dominant mutations in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) protein are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons, leading to muscle paralysis and death. The major histochemical hallmark in the remaining motor neurons of ALS is the intracellular accumulation of ubiquitinated inclusions consisting of insoluble aberrant protein aggregates. However, the molecular pathomechanisms underlying the process have been elusive. Here for the first time, we report that E6-AP, a homologous to E6-AP C terminus-type E3 ubiquitin ligase depleted in ALS mouse models before neurodegeneration. E6-AP coimmunoprecipitates with the SOD1 protein and is predominantly mislocalized in mutant SOD1-containing inclusion bodies. Overexpression of E6-AP increases the ubiquitination and facilitates degradation of SOD1 proteins. Finally, we show that the overexpression of E6-AP suppresses the aggregation and cell death mediated by mutated SOD1 proteins and cellular protective effect is more prominent when E6-AP is overexpressed along with Hsp70. These data suggest that enhancing the activity of E6-AP ubiquitin ligase might be a viable therapeutic strategy to eliminate mutant SOD1-mediated toxicity in ALS. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.