In the present paper, a high-temperature packed bed energy storage system of volume 175, 000 m3 is numerically investigated. The system is a underground packed bed of truncated conical shape, which comprises of rocks as a storage medium and air as a heat transfer fluid. A one-dimensional, two-phase model is developed to simulate the transient behavior of the storage. The developed model is used to conduct a parametric study with a wide range of design parameters to investigate the change in performance during both charging and discharging operation. Results show that the model satisfactorily predicts the dynamic behavior, and the truncated conical shaped storage with a rock diameter of 3 cm, insulation thickness up to 0.6 m and charging-discharging rate of 553 kg/s leads to lower thermal losses and higher energy efficiencies. The paper provides useful insight into the transient performance and efficiency of a large-scale packed bed energy storage system within the range of parameters investigated. Copyright © 2019 ASME.