Microtubules regulate eukaryotic cell functions, which have tremendous implication in tumor progression. Thus, the design of novel approaches for controlling microtubule function is extremely important. In this manuscript, a novel tetrapeptide Ser-Leu-Arg-Pro (SLRP) has been designed and synthesized from a small peptide library consisting of 14 tetrapeptides, which perturbs microtubule function through interaction in the "anchor region". We have studied the role of peptides on microtubule function on a chemically functionalized 2D platform. Interestingly, we have found that SLRP binds with tubulin and inhibits the kinesin-driven microtubule motility on a kinesin-immobilized chemically functionalized 2D platform. Further, this peptide modulator interacts with intracellular tubulin/microtubule and depolymerizes the microtubule networks. These interesting findings of perturbation of microtubule function both on engineered platforms and inside the cell by this small peptide modulator inspired us to study the effect of this tetrapeptide on cancer cell proliferation. We found that the novel tetrapeptide modulator causes moderate cytotoxicity to the human breast cancer cell (MCF-7 cell), induces the apoptotic death of MCF-7 cell, and activates the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21). To the best of our knowledge, this is the shortest peptide discovered, which perturbs microtubule function both on an engineered 2D platform and inside the cell. © 2017 American Chemical Society.