In this letter, a novel design technique to realize planar self-diplexing slot antenna using substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology is presented. The proposed antenna uses a bowtie-shaped slot backed by SIW cavity, which is excited by two separate feedlines to resonate at two different frequencies in X-band (8-12 GHz). By properly optimizing the antenna dimensions, a high isolation of better than 25 dB between two input ports is achieved, which helps to introduce self-diplexing phenomenon in the proposed design. The behavior of the individual cavity modes at two resonant frequencies is explained using half-mode theory. The proposed antenna resonates at 9 and 11.2 GHz with unidirectional radiation pattern and a high gain of 4.3 and 4.2 dBi, respectively. © 2016 IEEE.