In this study, both reverse osmosis (RO) and forward osmosis (FO) experiments are conducted to concentrate simulated inactive ammonium diuranate (ADU) filtered effluent solution (by mixing uranyl nitrate and ammonium nitrate) using indigenously developed cellulose acetate blend (CAB) and thin-film composite polyamide (TFCP) membranes. Both the membranes are prepared and characterized in terms of pure water permeability and solute rejection for 2000 ppm NaCl feed, water contact angle and surface average roughness. Subsequently, testing of volume reduction and concentration of simulated ADU effluent solution are carried out using custom made RO and FO testing systems. It is found that in RO process, the performance in terms of volume reduction factor and concentration factor with respect to uranium for both CAB and TFCP membranes are comparable but the CAB membranes show better performance than the TFCP membranes in FO modes. The concentration of ammonium nitrate is less in RO concentrate than in the FO concentrates. Similar experiments with the feed solution having different concentration of uranium (1-20 ppm) with same concentration of ammonium nitrate show that in FO, almost no leaching of uranium is found to the draw solution side but in RO, some of the uranium starts passing to the permeate side, particularly at lower concentration of uranium in the feed. © 2013 © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.