Apoptosis associated speck like protein containing CARD (ASC) is widely researched and recognized as an adaptor protein participating in inflammasome assembly and pyroptosis. It contains a bipartite structure comprising of a pyrin and a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) domain. These two domains help ASC function as an adaptor molecule. ASC is encoded by the gene PYCARD. ASC plays pivotal role in various diseases as well as different homeostatic processes. ASC plays a regulatory role in different cancers showing differential regulation with respect to tissue and stage of disease. Besides cancer, ASC also plays a central role in sensing, regulation, and/or disease progression in bacterial infections, viral infections and in varied inflammatory diseases. ASC is expressed in different types of immune and non-immune cells. Its localization pattern also varies with different kinds of stimuli encountered by cell. This review will summarize the literature on the structure cellular and tissue expression, localization and disease association of ASC. © 2020, Springer Nature B.V.