Regular protein synthesis is a needful and complex task for a healthy cell. Improper folding leads to the deposition of misfolded proteins in cells. Autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are the conserved intracellular degradation processes of eukaryotic cells. How exactly these two pathways cross talk to each other is unclear. We do not know how the impairment of autophagy or UPS leads to the disturbance in cellular homeostasis and contribute into cellular aging and neurodegeneration. Here in this review, we will focus on the functional interconnections of autophagy and UPS, and why their loss of function results in abnormal aggregation of misfolded proteotoxic species in cells. Finally, we enumerate and discuss the crucial inducers of autophagy pathways and elaborate their intersection steps, which have been considered to be advantageous in aging linked with the abnormal protein aggregation. The final goal of this review is to improve our current understanding about multifaceted properties and interactions of autophagy and UPS, which may provide new insights to identify novel therapeutic strategies for aging and neurodegenerative diseases. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media.