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Accessory cholera enterotoxin, ace, from vibrio cholerae: Structure, Unfolding and Virstatin Binding
Tanaya Chatterjee, Debadrita Mukherjee, , Aritrika Pal, Kazi Hoque Mirajul, Pinak Chakrabarti
Published in
Volume: 50
Issue: 14
Pages: 2962 - 2972
Vibrio cholerae accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) is the third toxin, along with cholera toxin (CT) and zonula occludens toxin (Zot), that causes the endemic disease cholera. Structural characterization of Ace has been restricted because of the limited production of this toxic protein by V. cholerae. We have cloned, overexpressed and purified Ace from V. cholerae strain O395 in Escherichia coli to homogeneity and determined its biological activity. The unfolding of the purified protein was investigated using circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Because Ace is predominantly a hydrophobic protein, the degree of exposure of hydrophobic regions was identified from the spectral changes of the environment-sensitive fluorescent probe 4,4′-dianilino-1,1′-binaphthyl-5,5′-disulfonic acid (bis-ANS) that quenches the fluorescence of tryptophan residues of Ace in a concentration-dependent manner. Results showed that bis-ANS binds one monomeric unit of Ace with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a K′ of 0.72 sM. Ace exists as a dimer, with higher oligomeric forms appearing upon glutaraldehyde cross-linking. This study also reports the binding of virstatin, a small molecule that inhibits virulence regulation in V. cholerae, to Ace. The binding constant (K = 9 × 104 M-1) and the standard free energy change ($\delta$G° = -12 kcal mol-1) of Ace-virstatin interaction have been evaluated by the fluorescence quenching method. The binding does not affect the oligomeric status of Ace. A cell viability assay of the antibacterial activity of Ace has been performed using various microbial strains. A homology model of Ace, consistent with the experimental results, has been constructed.(Figure Presented) {\textcopyright} 2011 American Chemical Society.
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