In this letter, a novel coaxial line to substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) broadband transition is presented. The transition is designed by connecting the inner conductor of a coaxial line to an open-circuited SIW. The configuration directly transforms the TEM mode of a coaxial line to the fundamental TE10 mode of the SIW. A prototype back-to-back transition is fabricated for X-band operation using a 0.508 mm thick RO 4003C substrate with dielectric constant 3.55. Comparison with other reported transitions shows that the present structure provides lower passband insertion loss, wider bandwidth and most compact. The area of each transition is 0.08λg2 where λg is the guided wavelength at passband center frequency of f0= 10.5 GHz. Measured 15 dB and 20 dB matching bandwidths are over 48% and 20%, respectively, at f0. © 2001-2012 IEEE.